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Working Paper

What the Estimates of the Balance of Foreign Exchange of North Koreans Would Tell Us

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  • 저자 장형수
  • 발행일 2020/07/24
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요약 We first introduce and summarize preceding research on the balance of foreign exchange (BFE) of North Koreans (1991–2017) based on the method used by Zang (2009, 2013) and Zang and Kim (2019). Then, we present new estimates for the BFE of North Koreans in 2018 (including North Korea’s earnings from cyberattacks). Combining all of the results, we present a new estimate of the current foreign exchange holdings of North Koreans at end-2018. We also discuss how to estimate the foreign exchange holdings of North Koreans in the unofficial sector. Finally, we could present some guidelines to understand the responses from the North Korean authorities on international sanctions as well as North Korea-US dialogues.

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