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연구보고서 정부산하기관 관리정책에 관한 연구 2005.12.31

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Series No. 2005-02

연구보고서 정부산하기관 관리정책에 관한 연구 #공기업연구

2005.12.31

  • KDI
    설광언
  • KDI
    박재신
국문요약
본 연구의 목적은 정부산하기관 관리정책의 개선방안을 모색해 보는데 있다. 보고서의 구성은 다음과 같다. 먼저 정부산하기관의 현황과 이들 기관에 대한 관리체계와 법적 근거, 그리고 현재와 같은 법령에 의한 기관분류와 관리체계가 가져오는 문제점을 짚어본 후, 합리적 지배구조설계를 위한 전제조건으로서 공공기관의 새로운 유형분류방식을 모색해 본다. 그리고 본 연구의 핵심사항으로서 공공기관 유형별로 적합한 지배구조 개선방안을 제시하고자 한다. 구체적으로는 지배권 배분 및 소유권 행사 조직화방안, 이사회 및 감사제도 개선방안, 유형별 표준지 배구조모델 등에 대한 연구결과를 소개한다. 마지막으로는 산하기관들의 자율성·책임성·투명성 제고방안을 살펴본다.
영문요약
Background and Purpose
Despite the growing relative importance of non-departmental public institutions in the Korean national economy, there is a dire need of control policies that induce proper management. The government’s control policy for the non-departmental public institutions including state-owned enterprises has been revised to keep pace with times. Nevertheless, the problems such as reckless management and moral hazard remain to be solved. Recently, a majority of developed countries are making efforts to improve the governance system of public institutions. In April 2005, OECD published the official guidelines for member countries on corporate governance of state-owned enterprises, of which main points include the separation of ownership function and industrial policy, reinforcement of the board of directors’ independence and power, and enhancement of management transparency. The Korean government has also recognized the necessity and made efforts for improvement. The annual evaluation of management performance that has been carried out only for state-owned enterprises since 1984 was expanded to evaluate 87 non-departmental public bodies. The evaluation of management innovation was newly introduced and a plan to improve the governance structure of the public institutions was formed and is currently being pushed forward. This study reviews the government’s policies to ensure the autonomy, accountability, and transparency of nondepartmental public institutions and offers policy suggestions that will enhance their efficiency and effectiveness.

Main Results
Due to the lack of clarity in the purpose and scope of non-departmental public institutions, there has been a blind spot in the government’s control of these institutions. Therefore, it was necessary to define the scope of the public institutions. Considering the degree of public nature, financial support, and controllability, 314 institutions were identified as to be under the government control. The following measures are identified as necessary steps in improving the government control system and enhancing the management transparency and accountability of public institutions.

First, the government needs to demand management information from all public institutions as well as to develop an information system that will consolidate the information in order to disclose to the public. Second, the government needs to evaluate the management performance of 187 institutions that have over 100 employees and report the results to the National Assembly. Third, the government needs to evaluate and publish the management performance, innovation level, and customer satisfaction level of 104 institutions that have relative importance to the national economy. Especially, 94 institutions out of 104 that have over 50 employees should be the first priority in the governance structure innovation. The government needs to re-categorize the types of institutions and develop a standard governance structure for each category.

The 94 institutions can be re-categorized according to their work characteristics as follows. The institutions with a high degree of commercial quality are grouped as ‘stateowned enterprises,’ and the institutions with a high degree of public quality are grouped as ‘quasi-governmental institutions.’ The stateowned enterprises are divided into two subgroups, ‘market-oriented types’ and ‘quasimarket-
oriented types’ according to the ratio of self-income to the annual budget and the size of assets. The quasi-governmental institutions are also divided into two sub-groups such as ‘fund-management types’ and ‘consigned service types’ according to their work characteristics. The control of state-owned enterprises is centralized to ‘the state-owned enterprise supervisory committee,’ which modifies the current
‘government-invested institution management committee’ in the Ministry of Planning and Budget. The Committee carries out the comprehensive and systematic supervisory roles on behalf of the citizens who are the ultimate owners of the state-owned enterprises, similar to that of the stockholders’ general meeting in private companies. Similarly, the control of quasigovernmental institutions is centralized to ‘the quasi-governmental institution supervisory committee,’ which modifies the current management committee in the Ministry of Planning and Budget that overseas institutions under the government umbrella. However, the role of sector ministries over the control of their relevant quasi-governmental institutions is largely recognized and the Committee only takes charge of external performance evaluation and the provision of common standards and guidelines with regard to the institutions’ management.

The government needs to minimize the ex ante regulations which impede the management autonomy and substitute the current comprehensive control regulations for more specific and restrictive regulations. It also needs to specify the roles and responsibilities of the non-permanent board member and the internal auditor in order to enhance their accountability and improve their working conditions. The state-owned enterprise supervisory committee and the quasi-governmental institution supervisory committee should conduct performance evaluations on individual board members and the internal
auditor and properly distribute rewards and charge punishment, accordingly.

The government needs to guarantee management autonomy to the CEOs of state-owned enterprises in the areas of organizing, staffing, and budgeting. The stateowned enterprise supervisory committee
should be allowed to control only with the management targets set in advance and the ex post performance while providing minimized guidelines on the organization structure, personnel management, salary level, and budget operations. It is necessary to strengthen the independence of the board of directors and extend its role of check and supervision over the management.

Conclusion
The government needs to improve the control system over non-departmental public institutions in order to solve the problems of reckless management and moral hazard. It is necessary to redesign and standardize the governance structure according to the institutions’ type and characteristics and centralize the ownership function to the finance or budgeting ministry in order to clarify the control responsibility of the government. The internal governance structure of the public institutions needs to be improved in the direction of expanding management autonomy and strengthening the board of
directors’ role of check and supervision.
목차
제1장 서 론

제2장 정부산하기관의 현황 및 문제점
 제1절 정부산하기관의 현황
  1. 정부산하기관의 포괄범위
  2. 정부산하기관의 규모
  3. 정부산하기관의 분류와 관리체계
 제2절 공공기관의 문제점
  1. 관리감독과 기관운영상의 문제점
  2. 분류체계상의 문제점

제3장 공공기관 유형분류의 개선
 제1절 유형분류의 의의와 기준
  1. 유형분류의 의의
  2. 공공기관 유형분류의 기준
 제2절 공공기관의 기관유형 분류모델 개발
  1. 기관유형 분류의 목적
  2. 공공기관 유형분류모델과 분류기준

제4장 지배구조 개선방안
 제1절 공공기관 지배구조 개선의 기본원칙에 대한 이론적 검토
  1. 공공기관 지배구조 개선의 배경
  2. 공공기관 지배구조 개선의 의의
  3. 공공기관 지배구조 개선의 기본원칙
 제2절 공공기관 외부지배구조 개선
  1. 소유권행사 조직화 및 지배권 배분방안
 제3절 이사회 및 감사제도 개선
  1. 현행 제도
  2. 선진사례
  3. OECD Guidelines
  4. 민간기업의 이사회 제도
  5. 민간기업의 감사제도
  6. 이슈와 대안들
 제4절 공공기관 지배구조 개선의 구체적 시안
  1. 공공기관의 범위 확정과 유형분류
  2. 외부지배구조의 혁신
  3. 내부지배구조의 혁신
  4. 임원 임면의 공정성 개선
  5. 공공기관 유형별 지배구조의 표준모델설계
  6. 공공기관 지배구조 개선 추진전략

제5장 정부산하기관의 자율성·책임성·투명성 제고
 제1절 정부산하기관의 자율성 제고: 사전관여 정비
  1. 사전관여 현황 및 정비방안
  2. 단계별 추진방안
 제2절 정부산하기관의 책임성 제고
  1. 공공부문 성과평가제도의 문제점
  2. 성과관리제도의 개선방향
 제3절 정부산하기관의 투명성 제고
  1. 공시제도 현황2
  2. 공시제도 개선 추진상황
  3. 공시 및 투명성 강화방안

참고문헌

【부록 1】 경영실적평가
【부록 2】 혁신수준평가
【부록 3】 정부산하기관관리기본법 및 시행령
【부록 4】 OECD 공기업 지배구조
관련 자료 ( 9 )
  • 주요 관련자료
  • 같은 주제자료
공공누리

한국개발연구원의 본 저작물은 “공공누리 제3유형 : 출처표시 + 변경금지” 조건에 따라 이용할 수 있습니다. 저작권정책 참조

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